One of the saddest things for me that has come out of research for my book Whatever Happened To Ishtar? is the fact that some historical birth and marriage certificates only record the names of fathers and paternal grandparents. It was indicative of an era when only males were considered important in the scheme of life. Although I have built up an extensive family tree of both my Lebanese and Italian ancestors, there are many gaps where a mother’s name should be. And each gap represents not just a missing name but links to whole lineages. As examples: when, after many years of searching, I located an ancient document of my maternal great grandmother’s birth, her mother’s name was omitted; a marriage certificate where both the mother of the bridegroom and of the bride were omitted. In some other cases I was able to find the information in a baptism confirmation certificate or in immigration archives, but my family trees have several names missing. My hope is that descendants of those families I have written about, will read my book and help fill in some of the missing gaps for our descendents.